Calibration strategy of the JUNO-TAO experiment

The Taishan Antineutrino Observatory (TAO or JUNO-TAO) is a satellite experiment of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO). Located near a reactor of the Taishan Nuclear Power Plant, TAO will measure the reactor antineutrino energy spectrum with an unprecedented energy resolution of <2% at 1 MeV. Energy calibration is critical to achieve such a high energy resolution. Using the Automated Calibration Unit (ACU) and the Cable Loop System (CLS), multiple radioactive sources are deployed to various positions in the TAO detector for energy calibration. The residual non-uniformity can be controlled within 0.2%. The energy resolution degradation and energy bias caused by the residual non-uniformity can be controlled within 0.05% and 0.3%, respectively. The uncertainty of the non-linear energy response can be controlled within 0.6% with the radioactive sources of various energies, and could be further improved with cosmogenic 12B which is produced by the interaction of cosmic muon in the liquid scintillator. The stability of other detector parameters, e.g., the gain of each Silicon Photo-multiplier, will be monitored with an ultraviolet LED calibration system.
The European Physical Journal C. 2022 Dec 09;82(12):1112