Socioeconomic development and ecological traits as predictors of human-bird conflicts

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Because of the significant impacts on both human interests and bird conservation, it is imperative to identify patterns and anticipate drivers of human-bird conflicts (HBCs) worldwide. Through a global systematic review, following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, we analyzed the socioeconomic factors and bird ecological traits driving the degree of knowledge and extent of HBCs. We included 166 articles published from 1971 to 2020 in our analyses through which we built a profile of the socioeconomic conditions of 52 countries with reported conflicts and the ecological traits of the 161 bird species involved in HBCs. Although HBC expanded worldwide, it had the greatest impact in less-developed countries (estimate 0. 66 [SE 0.13], p< 0.05), where agriculture is critical for rural livelihoods. Species with a relatively greater conflict extent had a relatively broader diet (estimate 0.80 [SE 0.22], p<0.05) and an increasing population trend (estimate 0.58 [SE 0.15], p<0.05) and affected human interests, such as agriculture and livestock raising. In countries with greater biodiversity, HBCs caused greater socioeconomic impacts than in more developed countries. Our results highlight the importance of understanding and addressing HBCs from multiple perspectives (ecological, sociocultural, and political) to effectively protect both biodiversity and local livelihoods.
conflict extent, degree of knowledge, dietary breadth, human development index, human-wildlife conflicts, population trends, systematic review, amplitud de dieta, conflictos humano, fauna, extension del conflicto, grado deconocimiento, indice de desarrollo humano, revision sistematica, tendencias poblacionales, HUMAN-WILDLIFE CONFLICT, CROP DAMAGE, CONSERVATION, ABUNDANCE, PATTERNS, LANDSCAPES, DIMENSIONS, PROVISION, SCIENCE, DENSITY