Ensemble Deep Learning for Wear Particle Image Analysis

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Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
This technical note focuses on the application of deep learning techniques in the area of lubrication technology and tribology. This paper introduces a novel approach by employing deep learning methodologies to extract features from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, which depict wear particles obtained through the extraction and filtration of lubricating oil from a 4-stroke petrol internal combustion engine following varied travel distances. Specifically, this work postulates that the amalgamation of ensemble deep learning, involving the combination of multiple deep learning models, leads to greater accuracy compared to individually trained techniques. To substantiate this hypothesis, a fusion of deep learning methods is implemented, featuring deep convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures including Xception, Inception V3, and MobileNet V2. Through individualized training of each model, accuracies reached 85.93% for MobileNet V2 and 93.75% for Inception V3 and Xception. The major finding of this study is the hybrid ensemble deep learning model, which displayed a superior accuracy of 98.75%. This outcome not only surpasses the performance of the singularly trained models, but also substantiates the viability of the proposed hypothesis. This technical note highlights the effectiveness of utilizing ensemble deep learning methods for extracting wear particle features from SEM images. The demonstrated achievements of the hybrid model strongly support its adoption to improve predictive analytics and gain insights into intricate wear mechanisms across various engineering applications.
convolution neural network, ensemble deep learning, lubrication, tribology, wear particle