Biogeografía histórica reciente de los vertebrados del "Hotspot" de Chile mediterráneo: dinámicas de distribución y nicho climático de linajes intraespecíficos, desde el último máximo glacial hasta el presente

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Biodiversity losses under the species level (i.e. cryptic diversity) may have been severely undersestimated in future global climate change scenarios. Therefore, it’s important to characterize diversity units at this level, and also understand its ecological responses to climatic forcings. We have chosen an endemic rodent from a highly endangered area as a model to look for cryptic distributional responses below the species level: Phyllotis darwini in the central Chile biodiversity hotspot. This area harbors a high amount of endemic species, and it’s known to have experienced vegetational displacements between two mountain systems during and after the Last Glacial Maximum. We’ve implemented an approach which integrates phylogeographic information into species distribution models. Our major findings are that the species is compossed of two major phylogroups: one of them has a broad distribution mainly accros valley but also in mountain ranges, meanwhile the other displays a disjunct distribution across both mountain ranges and always above a 1500 m altitude limit. Lineage distribution model under LGM climatic conditions sugget that both lineages were codistributed in the southern portion of P. darwini’s current geographic range, and mainly at the valley and coast. We’ve concluded that present distribution of lineages in P. darwini is the consequence of this cryptic distributional response to climate change after LGM, with a postglacial colonization with strict altitudinal segregation of both phylogroups.
Tesis (Doctor en Ciencias Biológicas, mención Ecología)--Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2015